What is Server-side Request Forgery?
Server-side Request Forgery (SSRF) is a web application vulnerability, where an attacker will be able to make a request to an unintended application or service from the target application.
Why Sever-side Request Forgery is dangerous?
- An attacker can make malicious intended request to the other third-party systems, which will appear to originate from the organization hosting the vulnerable application.
- An effective SSRF attack, can leads to unauthorized actions or access to data within the organization, either in the vulnerable application itself or on other back-end systems that the application can communicate with.
- An SSRF can be chained with Remote Code execution to compromise system or even the whole infrastructure.
How SSRF works?
Let us take an application, which shows the best offers for online e-commerce applications like Amazon.
Now let us take the application as
http://target.com. Assume this application having an endpoint
/amazon, which will fetch the offers for various categories from the another application
http://target-amazon.com without validating the url .
So the HTTP request will be like
POST /amazon HTTP/1.0
Here this source will be sent to server and server will make request to this site
http://target-amazon.com/getallcategories and fetch the details.
Here instead of
http://target-amazon.com/getallcategories in source, we can place any other site. If we do so, the target server will send the request to the url we placed and send back the response. An attacker with malicious intent can place a malicious payload to work the server for me.
How prevent the SSRF attacks?
- We can black list the sensitive endpoints like /admin
- We can allow only list of IPs. Against these IPs we can allow the request.
- Try to block the special characters.
Ways to attack the defense set for SSRF attacks
Black-list based input filter
Some applications block input containing host-names like
localhost, or sensitive URLs like
In this situation, we can often bypass the filter using various techniques:
- Using an alternative IP representation of
127.0.0.1, such as
- Registering your own domain name that resolves to
- Obfuscating blocked strings using URL encoding or case variation.
- Providing a URL that you control, which subsequently redirects to the target URL. Try using different redirect codes, as well as different protocols for the target URL. For example, switching from an
https:URL during the redirect has been shown to bypass some anti-SSRF filters.
White-list based input filter
Some applications only allow input that matches, begins with, or contains, a whitelist of permitted values. In this situation, we can sometimes bypass the filter by exploiting inconsistencies in URL parsing.
The URL specification contains a number of features that are liable to be overlooked when implementing ad hoc parsing and validation of URLs:
- We can embed credentials in a URL before the host-name, using the
@character. For example:
- We can use the
#character to indicate a URL fragment. For example:
- We can leverage the DNS naming hierarchy to place required input into a fully-qualified DNS name that you control. For example:
- We can URL-encode characters to confuse the URL-parsing code. This is particularly useful if the code that implements the filter handles URL-encoded characters differently than the code that performs the back-end HTTP request. Note that we can also try double-encoding characters; some servers recursively URL-decode the input they receive, which can lead to further discrepancies.
Chain an Open-redirect
If the target is managing the strict filters against SSRF, then we can find an open-redirect and using that we can successfully leverage SSRF